In my opinion, currency notes are one of the biggest motivation to learn arithmetical operations (like addition, multiplication,…). In fact, most of our elementary school problems are about buying a particular quantity of something.
Historically, there had been currencies notes featuring great mathematicians like Carl Friedrich Gauss, Leonard Euler and Rene Descartes. But, today there are no currencies featuring mathematicians. The database of currency notes featuring mathematicians is available here: http://web.olivet.edu/~hathaway/math_money.html
Since honouring people by featuring them on currency notes is politically challenging, government rather issues special postage stamps. The database of stamps featuring mathematicians is available here: http://jeff560.tripod.com/stamps.html
Apart from illustrating various mathematical concepts (like graphs, metric system, binomial theorem… ) on stamps, India Post has issued stamps to honour mathematicians like Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi , Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar and Bertrand Russell.