Tag Archives: prime number theorem

Four Examples


Following are the four examples of sequences (along with their properties) which can be helpful to gain a better understanding of theorems about sequences (real analysis):

  • \langle n\rangle_{n=1}^{\infty} : unbounded, strictly increasing, diverging
  • \langle \frac{1}{n}\rangle_{n=1}^{\infty} : bounded, strictly decreasing, converging
  • \langle \frac{n}{1+n}\rangle_{n=1}^{\infty} : bounded, strictly increasing, converging
  • \langle (-1)^{n+1}\rangle_{n=1}^{\infty} : bounded, not converging (oscillating)

I was really amazed to found that x_n=\frac{n}{n+1} is a strictly increasing sequence, and in general, the function f(x)=\frac{x}{1+x} defined for all positive real numbers is an increasing function bounded by 1:


Thre graph of x/(1+x) for x>0. Plotted using SageMath 7.5.1

The graph of x/(1+x) for x>0, plotted using SageMath 7.5.1


Also, just a passing remark, since \log(x)< x+1 for all x>0, and as seen in prime number theorem we get an unbounded increasing function \frac{x}{\log(x)} for x>1


The plot of x/log(x) for x>2. The dashed line is y=x for the comparison of growth rate. Plotted using SageMath 7.5.1


Prime Polynomial Theorem


I just wanted to point towards a nice theorem, analogous to the Prime Number Theorem, which is not talked about much:

# irreducible monic polynomials with coefficients in \mathbb{F}_q and of degree n \sim \frac{q^n}{n}, for a prime power q.

The proof of this theorem follows from Gauss’ formula:

# monic irreducible polynomialswith coefficients in \mathbb{F}_q and of degree n = \displaystyle{\frac{1}{n}\sum_{d|n}\mu\left(\frac{n}{d}\right)q^d}, by taking d=n.


For details, see first section of this: http://alpha.math.uga.edu/~pollack/thesis/thesis-final.pdf